This test is ordered prior to the removal of the thyroid gland due to cancer. Measuring the thyroglobulin levels after the removal of the thyroid gland is used to determine metastasis of certain types of thyroid cancers, i.e., differentiated carcinomas. The measurement of thyroglobulin antibody (TGab) is essential to the diagnosis of thyroid autoimmune disease. Typically the immune system does not produce significant levels of antibodies against throglobulin. The autoimmune disease associated with the production of high levels of antibodies often leads to patients developing hypothyroidism. The testing for TG antibodies such as thyroid peroxidase and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) antibodies is useful in diagnosing individuals with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland and acts on the thyroid gland to secrete T3 and T4, and thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme found in the thyroid gland that is associated with the same disorders as mentioned before.
Thyroglobulin is a large protein produced by thyroid follicular cells of the thyroid gland. This protein serves as a precursor for synthesis of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and is usually produced under the influence of thyroid stimulating hormone (aka thyrotropin). Because this protein is produced only by the thyroid gland, testing for thyroglobulin is widely used for evaluation of thyroid status and function. Increase in thyroglobulin levels often indicates increased thyroid cellularity and/or enlargement of the thyroid gland as is the case in certain thyroid tumors and cancers.
Anti-thyroglobulin AntibodyThe measurement of autoantibody against thyroglobulin is useful in identifying patients with autoimmune thyroid disease such as patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (>90%), chronic thyroiditis (70%), Graves’ disease (>60%), and subacute thyroiditis.
Thyroglobulin Panel is performed on a blood sample drawn from a vein in the patient’s arm. Additional tests may include Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3, T4, Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO), and Comprehensive Metabolic Panel.
Reference ranges and specimen collection vary from test method and laboratories performing this test. To properly evaluate your test results, consult with the ordering physician or healthcare provider. If you would like to learn more about testing for Thyroglobulin panel click here for further information or you can research one of the references listed below.
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